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9B Unit 1 知識點

rachel_zhao 2014-5-21 15:15 [復制鏈接]
第一單元知識點
9B  Unit 1   Life on Mars(1)第一單元 火星上的生活
1. How do you like life on Mars?
  你覺得火星上的生活怎么樣?★該句子中“How do you like…?”相當于What do you think of…?意思是“你覺得……怎么樣?”,曰常口語中用來詢問對方對某一事物的看法或者判斷。如:  “How do you like China?” 你覺得中國怎么樣?
   “It’s great. I like it very much.” “中國很偉大。我很喜歡它。”
2. I hate it.  我討厭它。★hate用作動詞,意思是“討厭”“厭惡某人/某物”。如: ① She hates anyone listening while she’s telephoning.  她打電話的時候,討厭別人聽。② She hates getting to the cinema late.  她討厭看電影遲到。★hate用作動詞,意思是“痛恨”“不喜歡”“憎惡某人/某物”。如: ① She knew clearly what to love and what to hate.  她愛憎分明。② She hated all this bitterly.  她對這一切極為痛恨。★hate用作動詞,常常用在口語中表示“不愿”“遺憾”的意思。如: ① I hate to trouble you.  我不愿麻煩你。② I would hate you to think I didn’t care.  我很遺憾你認為我漠不關心。【注】一般而論,當hate后接動詞不定式時,動詞不定式表達的是一次性的將來動作。如:③ To tell you the truth, I hate to do it.  (to do it僅僅表示一種潛在的可能性)
   說實話,我不愿意做這件事。④ She hate the children to quarrel.  (to quarrel只表示一種潛在的可能性)
 她討厭孩子們吵架。⑤ I hate the clock to chime (…just when I’m going to sleep.) (這里指的是一次打點)
 我討厭鐘(在我正要入睡時)打點。 【注】總的來說,當hate后接動名詞時,動名詞往往表示正在進行的動作或經常性的動作。如:⑥ I hate disturbing you. (=I’m disturbing you and I’m sorry.)
   我是很不愿意打擾你的。(正在打擾或經常打擾)⑦ I hate being laughed at.  我不愿意被人嘲笑。⑧ I hate children quarrelling.  (強調正在吵架或者經常吵架)
   我討厭孩子們(總)吵架。【注】hate sb. doing sth.的意思是“不愿意某人做某事”。如:⑨ He hates people asking him for money.  他討厭人們向他借錢。⑩ Our teacher hates anyone destroying things.  我們老師討厭人們損壞東西。★hate用作不可數名詞,意思是“憎恨”。如: ① She was filled with hate for his opponent.  她對她的對手滿懷憎恨。② He left with a look full of hate.  他帶著憎恨的眼光離開了。★hate用作可數名詞,常常用在口語中,表示“所眼的人或物”。如: ① Jim is one of my pet hates.  吉姆是我恨之入骨者之一。② Plastic flowers are a particular hate of mine.  塑料花是我特別厭惡的東西。
3. I can’t get to my food.  我吃不到我的食物了。★get to作“觸及”“接觸”“影響”講。如: ① His honesty got to me.  他的誠實打動了我。② His words got to me. I decided to walk on.  他的話影響了我,我決定繼續走下去。★get to作“到達”講,后接地點,相當于reach或arrive at/in。如: ① I’ll call you as soon as I get to Beijing  我一到北京就打電話給你。② The train had left when I got there.  當我到達那兒時,火車已經開走了。③ When did he get to New York?  他什么時候到達紐約的?【注】當get to后面接here, there, home等副詞時,to必須省略。【注】get to, arrive和reach的區別。★arrive是不及物動詞,如果要表達到達一個地方時,后面需要加上介詞in或者at,到達大的地方用介詞in,到達小的地方用介詞at。如: ① When we arrived, they had gone.  當我們到達時,他們已經走了。② His mother arrived in Beijing yesterday.  他媽媽昨天到達了北京。③ I arrived at the bus stop at 2 o’clock.  我兩點鐘就到達了汽車站。★reach是及物動詞,后面直接跟賓語,一般不接表示地點的副詞。如: ① He reached Shanghai last Wednesday.  他上星期三到達上海的。② How did you reach the village?  你如何到達這個村莊的?
4. Maybe people will be able to travel in space and live on other planets.
 也許人們能夠在太空上旅行并生活在其他星球上。★able用作形容詞,意為“有能力的”“有才能的”,在句中不能放在名詞前,常用于be able to do sth. 結構,意思是“能做某事”“會做某事”,它有時態、人稱和數的變化。如: ① The child is able to write now.  這孩子現在能寫字了。② Will you be able to come tomorrow?  明天你能來嗎?③ Jim was able to ride a bike two years ago.  吉姆兩年前就能騎自行車了。④ The little boy has been able to speak a little English.
這個小男孩已經會說一些英語了。⑤ I’m not able to go swimming with you because I’m very busy.
   我不能和你一起去游泳,因為我很忙。⑥ You are better able to do it than I.  你比我更有能力做這件事。 【注】be able to與can的區別
         can只有一般現在時和一般過去時(could)兩種形式,而be able to除了現在時和過去時外,還有將來時和完成時。如:⑦ I’m sorry I haven’t been able to answer your letter.  對不起,我一直沒有給你回信。⑧ Were you able to drive a car last year?  去年你會開車嗎?⑨ Tom can swim across the river now.  湯姆現在能游過這條河了。★當人們現在決定是否有做某事的能力時,常常用can,而不用be able to。如: ① Can I go fishing if it doesn’t rain tomorrow?  如果明天不下雨,我可以去釣魚嗎?② Can you come to my birthday party on Sunday?
星期天你能來參加我的生曰聚會嗎?★can與be able to不能重疊使用。如: We can talk about it now. =We are able to talk about it now.
現在我們可以談這件事了。(不可以說:We can be able to talk about it now.)★able的比較級和最高級有兩種形式,可以在詞尾加-er,-est,也可以在它的前面加more, most。如: ① He is the ablest student in his class.  他是他班上最有才華的學生。② He is the most able man I’ve ever seen.  他是我曾見過的最能干的人。
5. Help Daniel compare living on Mars to living on Earth at present.
  幫助丹尼爾把居住在火星和居住在地球作比較。★compare用作及物動詞,意為“比作”,常與介詞to連用,表示“把……比作……”。但在有些情況下我們也使用compare…to…來表達“將……同……作比較”的意思。如: ① Poets have compared sleep to death.  詩人把睡眠比作死亡。② We may compare the world to a stage.  我們可以把世界比作一個舞臺。③ The poet compares his lover to a rose in his poem.
詩人在他的詩歌中把他的情人比作玫瑰花。④ The work was hard and dangerous, but the pay was good compared to the wages in the old country.
   這項工作很艱苦,很危險,但是與這個國家過去的工資相比較,它的報酬還是很可觀的。★compare還要意為“比較”“對照”,與with連用,意為“把……與……比較”。如: ① Compare the two and take the better one.  比較兩者,選取較好的。② She compared her answer with the one given in the book.
   她把自己的答案與書中給的答案作了比較。③ If you compared British football with American football, you will find many differences.
   如果你把英式足球與美式足球作一比較,你會發現有許多不同之處。★compare用作不及物動詞,意思是“比得上”“相比”。如: ① Nothing can compare with wool, for warmth.
     從保暖性能來看,沒有什么東西能與羊毛相比。② Living in a town can’t compare with living in the country in many respects.
   在許多方面城市生活比不上鄉村生活。★過去分詞短語compared with和compared to表示“與……比起來”,在句中常用作狀語,可位于句首或句尾,此時介詞to和with通用。如: ① This road is quite busy compared with / to ours.
     與我們那條路相比,這條路要繁忙得多。② Children seem to learn more interesting things compared with/to when we were at school.
   與我們在學校時相比,孩子們似乎學到了更多有趣的東西。
6. present的用法★at present意為“現在”“當前”,present用作不可數名詞,意為“目前”“當前”。如: ① You have to stop worrying about the past and start thinking about the present!
     你必須要停止擔心過去,要開始考慮現在。② I’m afraid that I can’t help you at present.  我恐怕現在幫不了你。★present用作可數名詞,意為“禮物”“贈品”,相當于gift,一般來說可以通用,但gift帶有一定的感情色彩,有時有“捐贈”的意思。如: ① Jane received many presents on her 15th birthday.
  簡在她15歲生曰時收到了許多禮物。② Many thanks for the gift/present you sent me yesterday.
   多謝你昨天送給我的禮物。③ I’m buying it for a present, so please wrap it up nicely.
   我買這東西是送人的,請包得好一些。④ What a lot of presents you’ve had!  你收到的禮物真多啊!★present用作形容詞,意為“出席的”“在場的”,通常作表語或放在名詞后作定語。如: ① All are present and all is going on well.  全體人員都到了,一切進展順利。② Present at the meeting were our teachers, headmaster and some students.
   出席會議的有我們的老師,校長和一些學生。③ How many people were present at the meeting?  有多少人參加了會議?④ All the people present agreed to the plan.  在場的所有人都同意該計劃。★present用作形容詞,意為“現在的”“現存的”“目前的”,通常放在名詞前。如: ① Bush is the present president of the United States.  布什是美國現任總統。② I’m the present owner of the house.  我是這房子現在的房主。③ We do not have any more information at the present time. 目前我們沒有進一步的消息。
7. We will be cared for by robots.  我們將被機器人照顧。
care既可以作動詞,也可以作名詞。★care既可作及物動詞也可作不及物動詞,意為“在乎”“在意”,通常用于否定句、疑問句或條件句中。如: ① vi.  They might fail, but they didn’t care.  他們可能會失敗,但他們不在乎。
         I don’t care if I never see him again.  即便我永遠再也見不到他,我也不在乎。② vt.  I’ll go. I don’t care what happens.  不管發生什么,我都要去。
       I don’t care whom you will go together with.  我并不介意你要和誰一起去。★care與for或about連用,意為“關心”“愛護”。care for作“照顧”解時,可用于被動語態。如: ① We should care for/about each other.  我們應該互相關心。② The children are well cared for in the nursery.  孩子們在托兒所受到很好的照顧。★care后接動詞不定式或介詞for/about,意為“喜歡”“愿意”“對……感興趣”,用于否定句和疑問句中,不可用于被動語態。如: ① He might not care to go.  他也許不想去。② She didn’t care to be disturbed.  她不愿意被打擾。③ Rose doesn’t care about money.  羅斯對錢不感興趣。④ I don’t care for the place.  我不喜歡這個地方。★care作名詞用時,除了作“關心”“照顧”“憂慮”等解以外,還有“小心”“謹慎”“保護”“管理”“責任”“可憂慮的事(原因)”等。如: ① I retired last year. Now I am a man free from care duty.
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